Funaria life cycle Class 11 Biology. Back to categories. Occurrence l The genus Funaria comprises species. In India, it is represented by 15 species. The following diagram gives one example of a bryophyte life cycle, that of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. click to enlarge ยท Print this diagram as. Funaria hygrometrica – life cycle. Gametophyte. Spores. Protonema. Sporophytes . See. SEP. A recently germinated spore with a rudimentary protonema. spore.

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Thus, zygote or oospore is the first cell of sporophyte generation. The gametangia are sunken in the upper part of the thallus.

The receptacle is surrounded by rosette of perigonial leaves.

Funaria – Wikipedia

But the ‘leafy’ part of the gametophyte lacks stomata. Its upper cells are thick but two lowermost layers of cells are thin. It is attached below liff the edge of the diaphragm. Stereo-projection of a leaflet of Polytrichum made with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Have foot seata but no capsule.

Operculum is differentiated from theca by a well-marked constriction. Its internal structure is more or less similar to axis. It functions as anchoring and absorbing organ. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

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Mosses (Overview)

Each cell of the quadrant divides by anticlinal wall Fig. It is the photosynthetic funagia and connects seta with capsule.

The exchange of CO 2 and O 2 happens mainly by diffusion for lige through the large surface of lamellae on the leafletsalso through pores occur in Liverworts and through stomata on the capsule of the sporophyte of Hornworts and True Mosses. It is the terminal part of the sporophyte and is developed at the apex of the seta.

It grows higher than the male branch. Williams Funaria maireana Copp. These are called gemmae.

On return of suitable condition, each of them produces a protonema. It is the upper region of the capsule. It is called neck of the capsule. This layer divides periclinally to form two layers of 32 cells.

The opercular cells become mucilaginous, absorb water and swell, break connections with the neighbouring cells and form a narrow pore. Inside the jacket, a mass of androcyte mother cells present, each of which diagonally divides into two androcytes.

Mosses (Overview)

Each rectangular cell now divides by a periclinal division Fig. On account of the differentiation of the thallus and the sporangia in particular, a new classification has been proposed recently, in which the Bryophyta are a su-bgroup of the Mosses.


Pavletic Funaria obtusata Schimp. The terminal cell functions as archegonial mother cell Fig. The oospore divides and redivides to form embryo.

Each ring of peristome possesses 16 teeth. Funaria jamesonii Taylor Taylor Funaria japonica Broth. Archegonium develops from a single superficial cell called the archegonial initial Fig. The antheridia are intermingled with large number of sterile hair like club shaped structures called paraphyses Sing, paraphysis Fig. The dispersion of the spores can last for a few weeks after the opening of the grooves in the sporangium. Shaw Funaria riparia Lindb.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. It fuunaria mechanical in function and also conducts the water and nutrients to the developing capsule Fig. Protonema has green epiterranean chloronemal branches chlornema and non-green subterranean rhizoidal branches caulonema.

It results in formation of a group of four central cells surrounded by 8 peripheral cells.

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